Mediterranean Monk Seal

Mediterranean Monk Seals (Monachus Monachus) are the most endangered of the pinniped species and are on the brink of extinction. Their total population stands at less than 600 animals. Fishermen have persecuted these seals for centuries, blaming them for damaging nets and competing for the same harvest. The IUCN lists them as critically endangered and they appear on Appendix I of CITES. They are listed on both Appendices I & II of the Bonn Convention, Appendix II of the Bern Convention and Annexes II & IV of the European Community’s Habitats Directive. Pollution, disease, food shortages and environmental factors all conspire against their future survival which looks bleak at best.

world's most endangered seal, Mediterranean Monk seal, Monachus Monachus, filmed underwater

critically endangered, less than 600 left


Pupping for Mediterranean Monk Seals usually takes place during the months of September and October, while mating usually takes place from October to November. 

Pups are born with a soft black coat which has cream coloured chest markings. They will shed this lanugo coat when they are around 10 weeks old for a silvery dark gray coat. As the animal matures, its coat will smooth out to a dark brown.
underwater photo, monk seal, swimming in clear waters of mediterranean

Stunning photo

Pups weigh around 15-20kg at birth and measure about 1m in length. They nurse for a period of around four months, which is almost twice as long as Hawaiian Monk Seals, one of the longest of the phocid seals. Nursing periods of up to 16 weeks have been observed. These seals will also nurse from animals that are not the biological mother and both long term and short term fostering does occur. 

Mothers will remain with the pup for the first week or so before leaving on short foraging trips to feed. Sexual maturity in both males and females is reached at between 5-6 years and they can live to around 25 years. 
Mediterranean Monk seal entangled in discarded fishing net

Due to their fascination with discarded fishing nets, entanglement is a major risk factor to Mediterranean Monk seals


In 1990-1994, the French government planned to start a captive breeding program for Mediterranean Monk Seals. This was met with strong opposition from the scientific community, on the basis of the poor track record of maintaining Monk seals in captivity.

Due to the low number of pups being born, and even fewer making it to sexual maturity, rescue and rehabilitation of orphaned pups has become an important conservation tool.

These seals have been hunted not only for their meat and fur, but also by people who believe they have medicinal properties and are able to ward off or cure a variety of ailments.

Underwater pic, Monk seal, Mediterranean, swimming, scuba diver, things to do in the med

Pups are born with a soft black coat which has cream coloured chest markings. They will shed this lanugo coat when they are around 10 weeks old for a silvery dark gray coat.

The demise of the Mediterranean Monk Seal was accelerated by their regular capture for zoos and outdoor fairs popular in the 1970’s

Loss of habitat, human interference, entanglement, disease, increased tourism, competition for reduced food resources, pollution and illegal hunting all play a major role in their decline.

In ancient Greece, they were placed under the protection of Poseidon and Apollo because of their love of the sun. One of the first coins minted, around 500 BC depicts the head of a Monk seal.

Mediterranean monk seal foraging underwater along a reef

Looking for lunch